Types of cyber crime
Cyber-Crime is a fast-growing area of crime. More and more criminals are exploiting the speed, convenience and anonymity of the Internet to commit a diverse range of criminal activities that know no borders, either physical or virtual.
These crimes can be divided into three broad areas:
Cyber-Crimes against persons
Cyber-crimes committed against persons include various crimes like transmission of child-pornography, cyber porn, harassment of a person using a computer such as through e-mail, fake escrow scams. The trafficking, distribution, posting, and dissemination of obscene material including pornography and indecent exposure, constitutes one of the most important Cyber-Crimes known today. The potential harm of such a crime to humanity can hardly be explained. Cyber-harassment is a distinct Cyber-crime. Various kinds of harassment can and do occur in cyberspace, or through the use of cyberspace. Different types of harassment can be sexual, racial, religious, or other. Persons perpetuating such harassment are also guilty of cyber-crimes.
Cyber harassment as a crime also brings us to another related area of violation of privacy of citizens. Violation of privacy of online citizens is a Cyber-crime of a grave nature. No one likes any other person invading the invaluable and extremely touchy area of his or her own privacy which the medium of internet grants to the citizen. There are certain offences which affect the personality of individuals can be defined as:
Harassment via E-Mails: This is very common type of harassment through sending letters, attachments of files & folders i.e. via e-mails. At present harassment is common as usage of social sites i.e. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn etc. increasing day by day.
Cyber-Stalking: It is expressed or implied a physical threat that creates fear through the use to computer technology such as internet, e-mail, phones, text messages, webcam, websites or videos.
Defamation: It involves any person with intent to lower down the dignity of the person by hacking his mail account and sending some mails with using vulgar language to unknown persons mail account.
Hacking: It means unauthorized control/access over computer system and act of hacking completely destroys the whole data as well as computer programs. Hackers usually hacks telecommunication and mobile network.
Cracking: It is act of breaking into your computer systems without your knowledge and consent and has tampered with precious confidential data and information.
E-Mail Spoofing: A spoofed e-mail may be said to be one, which misrepresents its origin. It shows it’s origin to be different from which actually it originates.
SMS Spoofing: Spoofing is a blocking through spam which means the unwanted uninvited messages. Here a offender steals identity of another person in the form of mobile phone number and sending SMS via internet and receiver gets the SMS from the mobile phone number of the victim. It is very serious cyber-crime against any individual.
Carding: It means false ATM cards i.e. Debit and Credit cards used by criminals for their monetary benefits through withdrawing money from the victim’s bank account. There is always unauthorized use of ATM cards in this type of cyber-crime s.
Cheating & Fraud: It means the person who is doing the act of cyber-crime i.e. stealing password and data storage has done it with having guilty mind which leads to fraud and cheating.
Child Pornography: In this cyber-crime defaulters create, distribute, or access materials that sexually exploit underage children.
Assault by Threat: It refers to threatening a person with fear for their lives or lives of their families through the use of a computer network i.e. E-mail, videos or phones.
Cyber-Crimes against property
The second category of Cyber-crimes is that of Cyber-Crimes against all forms of property. These crimes include computer vandalism (destruction of others’ property) and transmission of harmful viruses or programs. A Mumbai-based upstart engineering company lost a say and much money in the business when the rival company, an industry major, stole the technical database from their computers with the help of corporate cyber spy software. There are certain offences which affects person’s properties which are as follows:
Intellectual Property Crimes: Intellectual property consists of a bunch of rights. Any unlawful act by which the owner is deprived completely or partially of his rights is an crime. The most common type of IPR violation may be said to be software piracy, infringement of copyright, trademark, patents, designs and service mark violation, theft of computer source code, etc.
Cyber Squatting: It involves two persons claiming for the same Domain Name either by claiming that they had registered the name first on by right of using it before the other or using something similar to that previously. For example two similar names i.e. www.yahoo.com and www.yahhoo.com
Cyber Vandalism: Vandalism means deliberately damaging property of another. Thus cyber vandalism means destroying or damaging the data or information stored in computer when a network service is stopped or disrupted. It may include within its purview any kind of physical harm done to the computer of any person. These acts may take the form of the theft of a computer, some part of a computer or a peripheral or a device attached to the computer.
Hacking Computer System: Hackers attacks those included Famous Twitter, blogging platform by unauthorized access/control over the computer. Due to the hacking activity there will be loss of data as well as computer system. Also research especially indicates that those attacks were not mainly intended for financial gain too and to diminish the reputati on of particular person or company. As in April, 2013 MMM India attacked by hackers.
Transmitting Virus: Viruses are programs written by programmers that attach themselves to a computer or a file and then circulate themselves to other files and to other computers on a network. They mainly affect the data on a computer, either by altering or deleting it. Worm attacks plays major role in affecting the computer system of the individuals.
Cyber Trespass: It means to access someone’s computer or network without the right authorization of the owner and disturb, alter, misuse, or damage data or system by using wireless internet connection.
Internet Time Thefts: Basically, Internet time theft comes under hacking. It is the use by an unauthorized person, of the Internet hours paid for by another person. The person who gets access to someone else’s ISP user ID and password, either by hacking or by gaining access to it by illegal means, uses it to access the Internet without the other person’s knowledge. You can identify time theft if your Internet time has to be recharged often, despite infrequent usage.
Cyber-Crimes against government.
The third category of Cyber-crimes relates to Cyber-Crimes against Government. Cyber terrorism is one distinct kind of crime in this category. The growth of internet has shown that the medium of Cyberspace is being used by individuals and groups to threaten the international governments as also to threaten the citizens of a country. This crime manifests itself into terrorism when an individual “cracks” into a government or military maintained website. The Parliament attack in Delhi and the recent Mumbai attack fall under this category.
India had enacted its first Cyber Law through IT Act 2000. It has been amended and now in 2008 the revised version is under implementation.
Cyber-crimes Against Society at large
An unlawful act done with the intention of causing harm to the cyberspace will affect large number of persons. These offences include:
Child Pornography: In this act there is use of computer networks to create, distribute, or access materials that sexually exploit underage children. It also includes activities concerning indecent exposure and obscenity.
Cyber Trafficking: It involves trafficking in drugs, human beings, arms weapons etc. which affects large number of person s. Trafficking in the cyber crime is also a gravest crime.
Online Gambling: Online fraud and cheating is one of the most lucrative businesses that are growing today in the cyber space. In India a lot of betting and gambling is done on the name of cricket through computer and internet. There are many cases that have come to light are those pertaining to credit card crimes, contractual crimes, offering jobs, etc.
Financial Crimes: This type of offence is common as there is huge growth in the users of networking sites and phone networking where culprit will try to attack by sending bogus mails or messages through internet. Ex: Using credit cards by obtaining password illegally.
Forgery: It means to deceive large number of persons by sending threatening mails as online business transactions are becoming the habitual need of today’s life style.